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Roadway maintenance activities occur in close proximity to traffic, creating a potentially dangerous environment for workers, drivers, and incident responders. In many such cases, a Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) Zone will be needed to both protect workers and incident responders as well as to allow for the safe and efficient movement of road users through or around TTC Zones. There are seven fundamental principles for TTC Zones that should be taken into account on every maintenance project, regardless of size or duration:
1. Plan for traffic safety. Road users and worker safety are a high priority element.
2. Interfere with traffic as little as possible. Avoid abrupt changes to traffic patterns that would require rapid or unexpected maneuvers.
3. Provide clear, positive guidance on how to get through the TTC Zone. Give adequate advance warning about the upcoming TTC Zone to all road users, including drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians (including disabled pedestrians) by using appropriate traffic control devices, such as cones or signs, and by removing or covering any conflicting devices. Provide a safe alternate route for pedestrians when the sidewalk is closed.
4. Perform continuous inspection and maintenance of TTC devices. Trained personnel should perform the inspections and schedule the repair or replacement of devices as necessary. (See ATSSA Quality Guidelines for Traffic Control Devices for guidance.)
5. Maintain roadside safety throughout the operation. Provide a buffer zone for errant vehicles and store equipment and materials where they will not get hit.
6. Make sure workers are properly trained and certified. All those who are involved with planning, installation, maintenance, and removal of a TTC Zone should have the appropriate safety and TTC training. (Check for state and local requirements.)
7. Maintain good public relations. Provide appropriate advance notice and cooperate with the news media in publicizing TTC Zone(s) that will impact pedestrian, cyclist, and vehicle traffic.
Work duration and location are key elements in identifying the number and types of devices used in the TTC Zone. Work durations for maintenance work typically fall into three categories:
|"Safety in short-duration or mobile operations should not be compromised by using fewer devices simply because the operations will frequently change its location." (source: MUTCD 6G.02)|
|"Warning signs, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on a vehicle, flags, and/or channelizing devices should be used and moved periodically to keep them near the mobile work area." (source: MUTCD 6G.02)|
Typical Applications are illustrative examples that show how to apply temporary traffic control principles and standards to various work zone situations, as in the case of short duration or mobile operations on the shoulder, illustrated below.
Typical Application 29, Figure 6H-29. Crosswalk Closures and Pedestrian Detours
For a complete list of the typical applications for maintenance operations, see The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
For more information on Typical Applications for Maintenance Operations, see:
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/index.htm
Traffic Control Handbook for Mobile Operations at Night http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/resources/publications/publications.htm
Maintenance Work Zone Safety: Pocket Guide of MUTCD's Guidance on Temporary Traffic Control at: ATSSA.com
The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse http://www.workzonesafety.org/
FHWA's Work Zone Safety and Mobility Program http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/
FHWA Office of Safety's Work Zones http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/
The American Traffic Safety Services
15 Riverside Parkway, Suite 100
Fredericksburg, VA 22406-1022
This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Highway Administration under Grant Agreement No. DTFH61-06-G-00004. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Highway Administration.
|Photographs courtesy of the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.|