It happens all too frequently, sitting in idle cars waiting for traffic to thin or making long detours because of road construction. Motorists often call it frustrating – transportation officials have a more formal name for it. They call it road user cost, and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is taking steps to incorporate it into overall costs for construction activities. Construction delays are not only frustrating, they can be costly to motorists in terms of lost time and wasted fuel. To minimize motorist inconvenience and road user cost, TxDOT offers contractors bonuses for early completion and charges them liquidated damages for late completion. That makes calculating road user cost as an incentive or disincentive amount an important factor in TxDOT contracting activities.