Transition taper length plays a vitally important role in work zone safety operations because too short a transition taper length will result in higher accident risks and too long a transition taper length could increase traffic delay. This paper evaluates transition taper length under various traffic conditions and road geometries using collision avoidance analysis. The longitudinal distances for lane changing and emergency stopping maneuvers are respectively calculated using collision avoidance analysis. The higher value between the longitudinal lane changing distance and emergency stopping distance is considered as the expected transition taper length. The comparison of transition taper lengths from the collision avoidance analysis and current empirical transition taper formulae shows that the collision avoidance analysis has the capability of evaluating transition taper lengths. This paper also contributes to providing theoretical supports for these empirical formulae.