Various road occupation works pose potential risks of traffic accidents because they cause traffic bottleneck and congestion, which lead to unstable driving patterns such as quick deceleration and lane changes of vehicles. Even though guidance signs are installed and managed in work zones for preventing traffic accidents, the differences of installation criteria set by the Korea Expressway Corporation (KEC) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) may increase the confusion of drivers. Therefore, this study set scenarios that take into consideration the colors and shapes of the work zone guidance signs used in driving tests through a virtual driving simulator and a survey on the preferences of drivers. According to the survey on the preference of drivers, 73% of the respondents analyzed prefer guidance signs in fluorescent orange color. In terms of driving patterns, the criteria of the KEC were found to induce smooth deceleration in expressway work zones than those of the MOLIT. In terms of driver concentration, the guidance signs conforming to the criteria of the KEC led to approximately 1.15 times higher concentration than those conforming to the MOLIT, which means that the former induce cautious driving in expressway work zones. The result of this study may be utilized as meaningful data for preventing traffic accidents by improving the traffic safety of road work zones on expressways and general roads, as well as by improving the traffic flow efficiency.