There has been limited collaboration between researchers in human factors and operational research disciplines, particularly in relation to work in complex, distributed systems. This study aimed to investigate work at the interface between human factors and operational research in the case example of road resurfacing work. Descriptive material on the factors affecting performance in road maintenance work was collected with support from a range of human factors-based methods and was used to inform operational research analyses. Investigation of the case example from a different perspective, for the supply of asphalt from a distribution centre to multiple work locations, gave a broader picture of the complexity and challenges for the improvement of road maintenance processes. Factors affecting performance in the road maintenance context have been assessed for their potential for further investigation using an integrated human factors and operational research approach. Relative strengths of the disciplines and a rationale for ongoing, collaborative work are described.