The United States experiences over 700 fatalities and over 37,000 injuries each year in temporary construction and maintenance work zones. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has implemented Temporary Traffic Control Devices 23 CFR 630 Subpart K, which specifies a state highway agency must amend their state safety and mobility plan by 2008 to include a description for positive protection in work zones and implementation guidelines for federal funded highway projects. This research study first investigated temporal trends in national and Kansas work zone related crash trends, specifically crashes involving striking a construction vehicle or fixed object. Additionally, current work zone TL-3 and TL-2 approved positive protection devices were summarized including longitudinal barriers, mobile barriers, vehicle arresting systems and end protection systems. Next, a nation-wide survey of state highway agencies was conducted to summarize current guidance relating to positive protection or changes in guidance to comply with Temporary Traffic Control Devices 23 CFR 630 Subpart K. Finally, the research study provided preliminary work zone positive protection guidance for the Kansas Department of Transportation based on the findings of the survey and currently available products.