The effectiveness and the safety of road construction depend on many factors that pose the greatest risk to system safety. The aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive assessment for these risk factors to contribute to the safety performance of road construction. To achieve this goal, this study constructs a hierarchical safety assessment framework comprising comprehensive risk indicators according to rich work experience and a relevant literature review and then proposes a group AHP-PCA (group analytic hierarchy process-principal component analysis) to calculate the weights of relevant risk factors. The important rankings of a case study using GAHP-PCA show that professional skill, safety education, and work attitude are the most important factors, which are consistent with the experience and knowledge of road construction safety management. The results also demonstrate that judgment dispersion naturally existing in classical AHP can be effectively reduced when combined with PCA, which is the innovation point of the method given in this article.